This article is the second in a short series about virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR); having discussed the difference between VR and AR, as well as the origins of the concepts and technologies, this article will focus on the development of VR for training programs and a new frontier of amusement. Later articles pertain to contemporary VR devices and adopting AR as a lifestyle.
Virtual Reality Series
Part II: Training and Gaming
As discussed in the previous article, although the first head-mounted display (HMD), the “Sword of Damocles”, was invented in 1968, VR and AR remained the purviews of military research and video game design until the research boom of the 90’s. Both industries focused on increasing the systems’ immersiveness and responsiveness, resulting in more realistic graphics, wearable tech, and the expansion of VR and AR into niche fields.
Recognizing the revolutionary possibilities of VR, in 1966 the US Air Force commissioned Thomas A. Furness III to develop the first flight simulator. Working out of the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio, from ‘66 to ‘89, Furness developed advanced cockpit simulators for fighter aircraft. In 1982, the first training flight simulator, the Visually Coupled Airborne Systems Simulator (VCASS), was used to offer trainees a virtual environment where they could develop skills without real-world consequences to mistakes.
Beyond offering a safe environment for soldiers to learn, simulators also allow trainees to experience various scenarios, landscapes, and situations. By using a virtual program, soldiers are able to repeat training exercises, and therefore get more training hours with less down-time; simulators are also much cheaper and eco-friendly than in-air flight training.
Using flight or driving simulators allows the trainee to become familiar with the controls and handling of expensive, and potentially lethal, vehicles before being placed in the cockpit or being the wheel. Simulations can also be used to train medical personnel to better perform complicated surgeries and become familiar with various procedures in a controlled, corrective and repetitive manner.
The other major industry for VR and AR during the decades before it became relatively mainstream was video gaming. In particular, Atari played a key role by hiring Jaron Lanier and Thomas G. Zimmerman, who would later go on to co-found VPL Research in 1984. VPL Research is credited with developing early wearable tech, such as the Data Glove, allowing people to manipulate virtual objects in three dimensions; the Eye Phone, an HMD that tracks head and eye movements; and the Data Suit, a full body outfit covered in sensors that allows measurement of arm, leg, and trunk movements.
Unfortunately, the technology remained prohibitively expensive for the daily consumer, and VR for the layman was largely relegated to arcades. For example, in 1991 Virtuality released the first mass-produced, networked, multiplayer VR entertainment system under the same name. A Virtuality system costed roughly $75,000, and contained multiple player pods, headsets and exoskeleton gloves, making the system the first immersive VR experience available to the public. Other VR arcade systems were more widespread, such as driving and first-person shooter games, some of which incorporated haptic feedback to more fully immerse the player.The next article in this series will delve deeper into contemporary -- here meaning “since 2000” -- VR and AR devices, particularly those developed for personal use.